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Marketing Communication

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Par   •  31 Janvier 2019  •  Cours  •  3 113 Mots (13 Pages)  •  475 Vues

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A paid for, non-personal form of mass communication from an identified source, used to communicate information and influence behaviour.

The value of advertising :

  • giving information to the consumers
  • compensating in any weaknesses in whosalers
  • boosting sales efforts in the retail trade
  • attacking competitive brands (ex : Pepsi and coca case)
  • keeping aggressive rivals at bay

How advertising works ?

Two main perspectives:

  • A strong theory of advertising

Advertising has the power to inform, persuade and sell products, services or ideas : it can make someone buy something

  • A weak theory of advertising

Advertising can act as a reminder and/or a nudge (= urge) to a consumer towards a brand or idea

Difference between the weak and the strong theory ? In the strong theory you believe that advertising can make people buy something.

Strong theory of advertising models :

Hierarchy of effect models : rational, sequential approach to advertising; still of influence today

Example of hierarchy of model :

AIDA (strong 1925) : one of the oldest, from the weakest step to the more powerful one

DAGMAR (Colley 1961) : Defining Advertising Goals for Measuring Advertising Results : a model promoted as a mean of establishing the objectives of an advertising campaign.

(→ as you can measure the results : it can sells)

Lavidge and Steiner (1961)

Wells et al (1965)

  • Similar in construction : their dimensions :

cognitive (knowing)

affective (feeling)

conative (motivational

Cognitive response model :

Another model that maintains that exposure to advertising, elicits different types of response and purport to suggest how these responses relate to attitudes and purchases intention

  • Drawback (= problem) of these models : more descriptive than predictive; no empirical evidence to support the argument that consumers pass through each stage (totally theoretical concept)
  • Post purchase evidence also a factor

Weak theory of advertising models

ATR(N) Ehrenberg and Goodhardt (1979)

Advertising may help Awareness, Trial and Reinforcement and may Nudge the consumer towards the brand

Portfolio of broad repertoire view : this perspective suggests that we generate, through trial, a portfolio of brands from which we make our choice

Front of Mind : advertising keeps individual portfolio brands at the forefront of the consumer’s mind

OTS – Rossiter and Percy (1998): with new products supported by heavy advertising 90% of the target audience have the Opportunity To See (OTS) the commercial

60% MAY be attentive of which a third may be impressed of which 70% may try it

(70% of the third part)

Low-involvement theory: consumers scan the environment, largely subconsciously, to identify anything worth-considering further


(complementary to the questions from the 1st session)

  • Metaphors
  • Similes – if there is the word “like” it is a simile, otherwise it is a metaphor

Both metaphors and similes are comparisons

  • Puns – it is a word play – when you work with words
  • Unconventional sentence structure
  • High imagery – it is frequently used in speeches
  • Unusual spelling
  • Partial messages (teasers)
  • Shock tactics – Ex: Benetton (starving baby on the ad/ somebody dying from cancer)
  • Colour versus black and white
  • Size
  • Duration

[pic 1]

Auction House Advertisement 

It uses – partial messages, colour versus black and white  and duration

  • Aesthetics – colour, music, art of portrait/ photograph
  • Ethics – the image of art, particularly the spiritual dimension of art
  • Politics – accessibility of art

Rhetorical analysis of print advertising (Logos, pathos, ethos)[pic 2]

YouTube – Rhetorical analysis of print advertising

Pathos (origin in Greece= suffer)  appeal to emotions, it connects:

What precise characterise a person, people, a company (corporate pathos: is public relations jargon for the employment of emotional engagement techniques to help alter adverse public attitudes to a corporation)





Ethos – appeal to trust:                                         




Logos –  (origin in Greece = speech) appeal to logic





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