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Artificial intelligence, main evolutions

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Par   •  27 Octobre 2019  •  Dissertation  •  1 551 Mots (7 Pages)  •  379 Vues

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The evolution of artificial intelligence and its issues

A look back at the beginnings of artificial intelligence

    This essay deals with artificial intelligence, first of all I will begin by defining artificial intelligence as a scientific field that seeks to solve logical or algorithmic problems, and more generally it constitutes devices that imitate or replace the human being. I would like to begin this essay by proposing some key events related to the evolution of artificial intelligence. The origin of artificial intelligence is assimilated to the mathematician Alan Turing with the Turing test, it is a proposal for an artificial intelligence test based on the ability of a machine to imitate a conversation between humans. A human speaks without seeing with another person and with a computer and if the human is not able to determine who is the human or who is the machine then the test is a success ( It is from this test that organizations have been created and have worked on the subject of artificial intelligence, such as the MIT.  In 1964 the ELIZA computer program was created to stimulate a psychotherapist, who reformulated the patient's assertiveness. Many of Eliza's interlocutors became emotionally attached to this artificial intelligence thinking that she really understood them, this is called the Eliza effect.

Developments on artificial intelligence have not stopped progressing, later in 1997, the IBM Company develops "Deep Blue" a super computer specialized in chess that manages to win a game against the world chess champion at the time Garry Kasparov.
We can also mention
AlphaGo, the google Deep mind computer program that beats several world champions at the "Go game" using automatic learning techniques.
( )

There are many questions and problems in our time concerning artificial intelligence. We wonder what are still the possible evolutions, what place will machines take in our world? AI is a danger to humans and how can we regulate this frightening but also fascinating phenomenon.

In this introduction I talked about the experiences of artificial intelligence that have been programmed to be similar to human being and his thought, as long as the machine is programmed by man it can be controlled but an artificial intelligence is also capable of learning itself autonomously. I can take the example of Tay, the artificial intelligence launched by Microsoft on Twitter, this project lasted only a few hours because the artificial intelligence that developed on its own on the social network became anti-feminist, racist, anti-Semitic... because of the interactions it had with other Internet users. This experience may lead to the observation that artificial intelligence has a high potential for storing and processing information, but that it remains strongly influenced by the data transmitted to it.

I. Artificial intelligence today  and how it perceives


Nowadays, artificial intelligence is already part of our daily lives, we find it on the Internet when we do a translation, or during google searches when searches have suggested it. But it is also found in several fields such as automotive with cars with intelligent recognition systems and autonomous cars, the most famous brand is Tesla. Artificial intelligence is also in the field of video games; art with the reproduction of paintings similar to the style of the greatest artists: music, artificial intelligence and capable of composing pieces of classical music or creating new music of the Beatles. (

Artificial intelligence is also in the field of home automation with assistants equipped with artificial intelligence such as Amazon's Alexa model, and in the field of health. Can we say that artificial intelligence is an artist, a musician or even a substitute for a doctor? There are divergent opinions regarding its evolution and the danger it could pose to humans.

Two main tendencies of thought regarding artificial intelligence: Post-humanism and Trans-humanism.

About Post-humanism

Post humanism is a current of thought born at the end of the 20th century that deals with the relationship between humans and technologies. This current of thought has an apocalyptic vision, which means that the human being will lose his privilege to the benefit of new and innovative entities, shaped by technology. This trend comes from the fields of science fiction and we can give as an example the film Gattaca by Andrew Niccol, which dates from 1997 and depicts this kind of situation. A futuristic world that practices eugenics (methods and practices aimed at improving the genetic heritage of the human being) where children are created to have as less flaws as possible, which makes children born in an illegitimate and obsolete way for this new world. Post-humanism perceives artificial intelligence as a degradation that conditions the human being, people belonging to this current of thought think it is necessary to slow down these developments. (La tentation transhumaniste, Éditions Salvator, 2015 by Franck Damour, French researcher and essayist, he is an opponent of transhumanism)

About Trans-humanism

Trans-humanism is a much more optimistic trend that supports the use of science and technology to improve the human condition, especially physical and mental skills. This current wants to eliminate disability, suffering, illness, aging or even death. One of the defenders of this current, Ronald Balley, says that trans-humanism is a movement that embodies humanity's most daring, courageous, imaginative and idealistic aspirations.( . It is an apologetic vision while many people think that trans-humanism is a dangerous idea : Transhumanism is the ideology that poses "the greatest risk to the well-being of humanity", argues Francis Fukuyama, an American intellectual for American revue « Foreing Policy »


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