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The Maltese Island and The capital city of " La Valette "

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The Maltese Island and The capital city of « La

Valette ».

Geography and general informations

Malta ( officially the Republic of Malta) is a Southern European country consisting of an archipelago situated in the centre of the Mediterranean, 80 km south of Sicily, 284 km east of Tunisia and 333 km north of Libya. Malta covers just over 316 km^2 and It is also one of the most densely populated countries

The country has two official languages: Maltese (the national language) and English.

Only the three largest islands – Malta (Malta), Gozo and Comino

The archipelago is situated in the zone between the Eurasian and African tectonic plates.

History :

Malta is populated around 5400-5200 BC. BC by Neolithic groups of farmers, ranchers, fishermen from Sicily. They set up a significant prehistoric civilization which is the origin of the oldest megalithic monuments still existing in the history of mankind

By its position in the center of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean is a relay obvious, given its natural harbors. The Phoenicians, the great navigators, using Malta from the tenth century BC. They settled a colony in the islands of the archipelago about 725 BC . Greeks also settled the seventh to fifth century BC. BC and apparently peacefully share islands with Phéniciens. With the decline of Phoenicia, the island came under the control of Carthage in 480 BC. In favor of the Punic Wars, the island came under the control of the Romans in 218 BC.

Probably around 455, Malta suffered the occupation of the Vandals and to that of 477 Ostrogoths. It then passes under the control of the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine presence remains in the archipelago until the conquest of Malta by the Arabs.

In 870 the Aghlabids seized the archipelago during the conquest of Sicily. The island of Malta was then repopulated with settlers Arab-Berber Muslim and Christian slaves to better defend the archipelago.

In 1090, the Normans of Sicily masters, led by Count Roger de Hauteville, seized Malta. In 1127, the island passed under the domination of Sicily. Finally, between 1240 and 1250, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor expelled Muslims, although many convert to stay in the islands. During this period, the Maltese rechristianisent but retain their Arabic language close to Arabic and a part of their vocabulary Sicilian and Italian. The archipelago welcomes Jewish families expelled from Spain in 1492.

When Charles V went to Italy for the first time in 1529 to be crowned Emperor by Pope Clement VII. Bologna is March 24, 1530, Charles V signed the diploma granting the Order "perpetual fee, noble and frank, cities, castles and islands of Tripoli, Malta and Gozo with all their territories and jurisdictions" together inherited the possessions of Naples and Sicily

During World War II, Malta played an important role due to its strategic position considerably hampers the supply of the Axis forces in North Africa in their attempt to seize the Suez Canal.

During the war a number of Maltese young people, usually students in Italy before the declaration of war, which is considered close to Italy, fighting in the Italian army to link their islands United, one of them, Carmelo Borg Pisani, pro Italian, Maltese Nationalist and fascist after participating in the Greek campaign with the Italian Army, was sent to Malta to spy on the archipelago. Captured, condemned by the Council of War, it is executed by the British for conspiracy November 28, 1942

The country's independence was recognized in September 21, 1964, but retains Malta Queen Elizabeth II as its head of many Commonwealth countries. It was not until 10 years later, on 13 December 1974, under the leadership of Prime Minister Dom Mintoff Malta proclaimed a republic and elect a president at its head. In 1984 major events taking place restrictive measures against religious education and church property. That same year, the country has signed agreements with Libya and the USSR.

The accession of Malta to the European Union becomes effective on 1 May 2004, 11 years after the first negotiations. Malta is part of the euro area on 1

January 2008.

Politics :

Malta is a republic whose parliamentary system and public administration is closely modelled on the Westminster system. Malta had the second-highest voter turnout in the world based on election turnout in national lower house elections from 1960 to 1995. The unicameral House of Representatives, is elected by direct universal suffrage through single transferable vote every five years, unless the House is dissolved earlier by the President on advice of the Prime Minister.

The House of Representatives is made up

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