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Géopolitique De L'Allemagne (document en anglais)

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I – GEOPOLITICS

1) Overview

Germany

Capital: Berlin

Money: Euro (€)

Number of inhabitants: 81 754 millions

Area: 357,022 sq km

63 rd largest country of the world

Location: Central Europe, bordering with the North and Baltic Sea. It is bordered by more than 9 countries with 3, 790 km of boundaries

• Politics – Main historical dates

- 1939-1945: World War II

- 8th may 1945: Nazi capitulation, sharing of Germany in 4 occupation parts (USA, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France)

- 1949: Creation of 2 German States: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR).

- 1955: Entrance in the NATO

- 1957: Entrance in the EU

- 13th august 1961: Building of Berlin’s wall

- 1973: Entrance in the United Nations

- 9 November 1989: Revolution of East German part, collapse of Berlin’s wall

- 3rd October 1990: German unification

- 2002: Use of the single currency EURO

- 22 September 2005: Angela Merkel Became the first Prime minister of Germany

- 27 September 2009: Angela Merkel is reelected

- 30 June 2010: Christian Wulff is elected federal President of Germany

- 2011/2012: Elected in the Security Council for this period

- 17 February 2012: Christian wulff give his resignation

- 18 march 2012: election of the federal president, win of Joachim gauck

In Germany, the head of states is the federal president but he has just a honorary and

Figurative part. He is elected for 5 years by the parliament. This is the prime

Minister who has the executive power.

The parliament is composed of:

- Bundestag with 620 places (elected at the universal vote for 4 years)

- Bundesrat with 69 places (rep for each land and for 4 years)

• Economy

- GDP in 2013 : 3.593,24 billion of USD either an increase of 0,6%

- Expectation of GDP in 2014 : 3.7747,07 billion of USD either an increase of 1,8%

- Inflation rate: 1,6% in 2013

- Exchange rate (2012): 1USD = 0,78 EUR

- Country risk assessment : A2

- Unemployment rate (2011) : 6,6%

- European central bank : Headquarter in Frankfurt

After the 2008/2009 recession, Germany has recovered an economic stability thanks to a good export dynamic and a domestic consumption which stay stable. That’s why it is the first European economy and also the fourth worldwide economy after China, USA and Japan. The label “Made in Germany” and its highly skilled labor force give at the German companies a worldwide reputation in terms of innovation, technology and quality.

As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. We will analyze 5 main parameters to well know how Germany succeed in the Europe area and which are its geopolitical issues.

2) Analysis of the five parameters of Geopolitics

LAND

Germany is composed of 16 Länder whom 3 city states,

32 Regierungsbezirke, 323 Landkreise, 14865 villages

As we have seen previously, the success of Germany

In the Europe area place itself like the largest economy

Of the continent but it creates some issues for the country.

Indeed, as its Western European neighbors, Germany faces with demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. With 1, 43 children born per woman, the renewal generation threshold is not reached. The population is represented by 20% of retired person. The population decline will continue. It may only be restricted if the country agrees to increase its migration.

Moreover, its dependence on exports and weak domestic demand penalize exports from its neighbors.

Germany is directly affected by the financial health of its partners and the rise of industries in emerging countries. These - China, India and Brazil mainly - provide it with low-cost infrastructure needed by its large domestic industry (Volkswagen, BMW, Daimler, Mercedes, Siemens, etc...). However, this model is for a decade already changing.

There were an immigrant wave called “the guest workers (Gastarbeiter)” from Turkey, they contributed to the "economic miracle" in the 1960s, but today Germany is becoming aware that it has become a country of immigration ".

Today, with the European crisis, especially in Greece, Portugal and in Spain, the workers try to escape the unemployment and the poverty in their native country. This new wage is younger but also more qualified. Germany appears like the utopian land.

Currently, nearly one of three newborns in Germany comes from a family of immigrant.

Turkey 2,485 millions

Poland 1,311 millions

Russia 1,049 millions

Italy 745 000

Greece 375 000

Croatia 335 000

Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo 260 000

Ukraine 256 000

Bosnia-Herzegovina 207 000

Europe

...

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