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Le Dr Droit De Passage Dans Les Diffentes Zones Maritimes Sous Juriduction De L'etat Cotier

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Droit De La Mer

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Catégorie: Sante et Culture

Soumis par: Amarante 07 mars 2012

Mots: 9392 | Pages: 38

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armed wing of international trade, and was a globalised industry before even the concept was coined. The “turf” of ocean carriers is indeed a space subject to international law. This law is a cornerstone for peaceful relationships between peoples. The competition for supremacy over the oceans and their resources has made it vital to establish rules of good conduct agreed upon by all users of the sea. Thus was born this customary international law: the law of the sea. Later codified in the framework of international conventions and settlements, the law of the sea is now what you might call our maritime “highway code”. The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) or “Montego Bay Convention” has since become our bible. Armateurs de France has therefore chosen to give you a quick and

simple insight into this Convention. Of course, simplification may sometimes be at the expense of detail but at least it allows you to have an overview of these regulations covered in 50 themes. Getting an insight into this convention gives everyone an understanding of the rules imposed on all and which protect everyone of us. It is the fruit of an international effort and consensus on this rather delicate issue, and certainly one prone to disputes, like the party fence wall can sometimes be a matter of contention between two neighbours. Who does the sea belong to? What are the rights and duties of those who use the sea? Of those who sail the oceans? Of those who exploit its resources? Who is entitled to police any unlawful actions committed at sea? And who to sue the offenders? On each page of this booklet, Armateurs de France introduces a definition or rule provided by the “Montego Bay Convention”.

the montego bay convention iN 50 LEssoNs

Anne Sophie AVÉ Director General of Armateurs de France

the montego bay convention iN 50 LEssoNs

la convention de montego bay EN 50 LEçoNs

A few keys to understand the Law of the Sea

POURQUOI UN DROIT DE LA MER ?

La mer, c’est un peu « le mur de clôture » entre les pays du monde. Point de cristallisation d’enjeux stratégiques, politiques, militaires et économiques, espace d’exploitation de richesses et moyen de communication entre les continents et les peuples, la mer est un espace de liberté. Il s’est très vite révélé essentiel de réglementer cet espace « entre voisins ». La Convention des Nations Unies sur le Droit de la mer dite « de Montego Bay » ou UNCLOS vient donc poser un ensemble de règles de conduites, droits et obligations des « usagers des mers ».

The sea, is a little like a fence line dividing the countries of the world from one another. It focuses strategic, political, military and economic challenges, a space to be exploited for its riches and a means of communication between continents and people, the sea is also a space of freedom. It therefore soon proved crucial to regulate this space “between neighbours”. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, UNCLOS, more widely known as “Montego Bay” Convention sets out a number of practices, rules, rights and duties for “users of the seas”.

the montego bay convention iN 50 LEssoNs

WHY A LAW OF THE SEA?

la convention de montego bay EN 50 LEçoNs

1

la convention de montego bay EN 50 LEçoNs

DE GENÈVE À MONTEGO BAY

En 1958, la Conférence de Genève codifie pour la première fois le droit international de la mer en quatre conventions, entrées en vigueur entre 1962 et 1966 : • La mer territoriale ; • La haute mer ; • Le plateau continental ; • La pêche. Bien qu’elle ait présidé les travaux d’élaboration de ces conventions (en la personne de Léopold DOR), la France n’a ratifié que les deux dernières.

HISTORIQUE DE LA CONVENTION

L’ONU a initié des travaux sur le droit de la mer en 1973. Ils se sont achevés le 10 décembre 1982 par la signature de la Convention des Nations Unies sur le droit de la mer à Montego Bay (en Jamaïque). Les pays industrialisés, en désaccord sur certaines dispositions importantes, ne parviennent à un accord modificatif qu’en novembre 1994, date à laquelle la Convention entre en vigueur. La France ratifiera l’UNCLOS en 1996.

2

the montego bay convention iN 50 LEssoNs

In 1958, the Geneva Conference for the first time codified the international law of the sea into four conventions, which became effective respectively between 1962 and 1966: • Territorial sea; • High seas; • Continental shelf; • Fishing. Although France took part in the preparatory work of this Convention (with Léopold DOR as chairman), it only ratified the latter two.

The UN worked on the law of the sea from 1973 to 1982 until the Convention was signed in Montego Bay (Jamaica). Industrial countries, which disagreed on certain major provisions, only completed an amended version of the agreement in 1994, when the Convention actually became effective. France ratified UNCLOS in 1996.

the montego bay convention iN 50 LEssoNs

FROM GENEVA TO MONTEGO BAY

HISTORY OF THE CONVENTION

la convention de montego bay EN 50 LEçoNs

3

la convention de montego bay EN 50 LEçoNs

LIBERTÉ,

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