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Two steps of democratization

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Par   •  12 Janvier 2020  •  Cours  •  351 Mots (2 Pages)  •  38 Vues

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Two steps of democratization

Milestones of democratization

Three main steps

The second big milestones of democratization

Pluralist representation: right to organize party’s representative of different interests with equal rights to participate in parliament

In some countries, a more proportional voting system was adopted, allowing new opposition parties to be represented in parliament

Often the logic was to prevent new parties presenting mass segments of the electorate to enjoy majoritarian advantages

Majoritarian system 🡪 Two parties system

Proportional system: in some countries it was never done, but early in Belgium, Finland, Sweden (1900’s). In France, for the first time after de SWW 1946.

🡪 Lot of parties in the government

Political alternative: organized opposition

🡪 Citizens win the right to appeal for votes against government and peaceful alternations occur. Rough indicator: when socialist or social democratic parties are first accepted into government.

Variation in actual political turnover

Despite multi-party elections and well-established rights for opposition

        Botswana Democratic Party rules since independence in 1966

In particular, the fragmentation of the party system and the need for parliamentary majorities encourage a reliance on multiparty coalitions that cannot be displaced in their entirety.

Two-party system or bipolar systems are more favourable to political alternations in power.

To sum up…

Chart “Two dimensions of liberal democracy”

Inclusive if there is an opposition and everybody can participate

Types of democratic transition

Bottom-up: the people rise up to overthrow an authoritarian regime in a popular revolution

        East Germany in November 1989: street protests force the East government to open up the Berlin Wall and allow free multiparty elections

        Arab Spring: revolutionary cascade affecting Tunisia, Egypt, Lybia, Syria, Yemen and Bahrain (importance of the use of new media)

Top-down: the authoritarian ruling elite introduces liberalizing reforms that ultimately lead to a democratic transition

        Brasil, Latine America countries: transition to military regimes

Externally imposed democracy: demoracy is imposed on a country (military force)

        2003 US invasion of Irak: debates on whether democratization can be successfully imposed.



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